Posts Tagged "Cancer"

teen exercise 2Women who exercised during their teen years were less likely to die from cancer and all other causes during middle-age and later in life, according to a new study by investigators at Vanderbilt University Medical Center and the Shanghai Cancer Institute in China.

The study was published online July 31 in Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention, a journal of the American Association of Cancer Research.

Lead author Sarah Nechuta, Ph.D., MPH, assistant professor of Medicine in the Vanderbilt Epidemiology Center, said understanding the long-term impact of modifiable lifestyle factors such as exercise in adolescence can have important public health implications for disease prevention over the course of a woman’s life.

“Our results support the importance of promoting exercise participation in adolescence to reduce mortality in later life and highlight the critical need for the initiation of disease prevention early in life,” said Nechuta.Teen exercise 3

The study was designed to ascertain potential associations between adolescent exercise and cancer, cardiovascular disease or other causes of death among women in middle age and later life. The investigators used data from the Shanghai Women’s Health Study, a large ongoing prospective cohort study of 74,941 Chinese women between the ages of 40 and 70. The women enrolled in the study between 1996 and 2000. Each participant was interviewed at enrollment about exercise during adolescence, including participation in team sports, as well as other adolescent lifestyle factors. They were also asked about exercise during adulthood and other adult lifestyle factors and socioeconomic status, and participants were interviewed again every two to three years.

Regular exercise was defined as occurring at least once a week for at least three continuous months. Women who Teen exercise 1reported regular adolescent exercise were also asked how many hours a week they participated and for how many years they had exercised regularly.

“In women, adolescent exercise participation, regardless of adult exercise, was associated with reduced risk of cancer and all-cause mortality,” explained Nechuta.

Participation in team sports during the teen years was associated with a reduced risk of cancer death later in life.

Source: American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)

chemicals 2New research shows that 50 chemicals people are exposed to daily, all of which are considered non-carcinogenic, may cause cancer when combined.

The series of studies which comprise the research, worked on by 174 scientists in 28 countries, considered links between 85 common chemicals thought not to cause cancer. Fifty were found to interact at ordinary environmental exposure levels to support cancer-related mechanisms. 

“This research backs up the idea that chemicals not considered harmful by themselves are combining and accumulating in our bodies to trigger cancer and might lie behind the global cancer epidemic we are witnessing,” said Dr. Hemad Yasaei, a cancer biologist at Brunel University London, in a press release. “We urgently need to focus more chemicals 3resources to research the effect of low dose exposure to mixtures of chemicals in the food we eat, air we breathe and water we drink.”

The Nova Scotia-based Getting To Know Cancer put together the task force of scientists for the first-of-its-kind look at the effects of combinations of common chemicals thought not to cause cancer. The organization gathered scientists two years ago as part of the Halifax Project, which created task forces of scientists researching the complexities of cancer and its causes.

William Goodson III, a senior scientist at the California Pacific Medical Center, said the results of the studies show not only chemicals 1that chemicals safe on their own are combining in the air to form mixtures that can cause cancer, but that the way chemicals are tested for safety needs to be changed.

“The way we’ve been testing chemicals — one at a time — is really quite out of date,” Goodson said. “Every day we are exposed to an environmental ‘chemical soup,’ so we need testing that evaluates the effects of our ongoing exposure to these chemical mixtures.”

Source: UPI

Statin 3Statin use is associated with a significant reduction in cancer mortality, conclude two separate studies, one in women, and the other in men. Both were presented here at the American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) 2015 Annual Meeting.

Specifically, statin use was associated with a 22% reduction in deaths from various cancer types in women and a 55% reduction in deaths from bone/connective tissue cancers. The study in men looked at statin use together with the antidiabetes medication metformin and found a 40% reduction in prostate cancer mortality, with the effect more pronounced in men with obesity/metabolic syndrome.

As for how such an effect is achieved, the researchers speculate that statins interfere with cell growth and metastasis by blocking cholesterol production, thereby affecting molecular pathways and the inflammatory Statinsresponse.

The results in women were presented by Ange Wang, BSE, from Stanford University School of Medicine, in California.

Dr. Wang and colleagues examined data from the Women’s Health Initiative, a 15-year research program involving postmenopausal women aged 50 to 79 years who were enrolled between 1993 and 1998 at 40 centers in the United States.

They determined the association between patients’ never having used statins, current statin use, and past statin use, as well as the incidence and number of deaths from cancer among 146,326 women. The median follow-up period was 14.6 years.

The researchers took into account a number of potential confounding factors, including age, race/ethnicity, statins 2education, smoking, body mass index, physical activity, family history of cancer, and current healthcare provider.

Among the participants, there were 23,067 cases of incident cancer for which complete follow-up data were available. There were 7,411 all-cause deaths, including 5,837 deaths from cancer, 613 cardiovascular deaths, and 961 deaths from other causes. In all, 3,152 cancer deaths were included in the analysis, of which 708 were among current statin users and 2443 among patients who had never used statins.

Source: Medscape

 

Heart attackThe risk of developing cancer is significantly higher in survivors of an acute MI compared to the general population, according to a large Danish national registry study.

“Greater focus on long-term cancer risk is warranted in MI survivors. This could potentially have implications on future patient care for MI patients, outpatient follow-up strategies, and distribution of health care resources,” Morten Winther Malmborg said at the annual meeting of the American College of Cardiology.heart attack 3

He presented a nationwide cohort study including 3,005,734 Danish adults with no baseline history of MI or cancer who were followed for up to 17 years in the comprehensive Danish National Patient Registry. During the study period, 125,926 of these individuals had a nonfatal MI.

The subsequent incidence of cancer in the MI survivors was 167 cases per 10,000 person-years compared with 95 per 10,000 person-years in the control group, reported Mr. Malmborg, a fourth-year medical student at the University of Copenhagen.

Source: Family Practice News

lung cancer 3Lung cancers is the leading cause of cancer related mortality in the United States, with 159,000 deaths estimated in 2014.  Age older than 55 years and smoking are the strongest risk factors for lung cancer.  Smoking cessation is the main intervention to prevent lung cancer in 20% of Americans who continue to smoke, but only 15% of cessation efforts succeed.  Outcomes in lung cancers depend crucially on the stage of diagnosis, with 5-year survival for non-small cell lung cancer estimates at 71% – 90% for stage IA and 42% – 75% for stage IB cases, compared with less than 10% for those diagnosed with stage IV.  Currently only 15% of lung cancer cases are diagnosed at stage I, and large trials have not supported the value of chest radiography or sputum cytology for screening.  Low-dose computed Lung Cancer 1tomography (CT) has emerged as a potentially useful screening method, with 55% – 85% of detected cancers found to be stage I.  Approximately 9 million Americans would potentially be eligible for this screening guideline, divided roughly equally between current smokers and former smokers who have quit within the past 15 years.

Source: JAMA

The Presidential Healthcare Center’s Executive Physicals include cancer screening and tumor marker tracking.

Cancer 3The report found that the most common cancer sites continue to be cancers of the prostate (128 cases per 100,000 men), female breast (122 cases per 100,000 women), lung and bronchus (61 cases per 100,000 persons), and colon and rectum (40 cases per 100,000 persons). Among these common cancer sites, 5-year relative survival was 97 percent for prostate cancer, 88 percent for breast cancer, 63 percent for colorectal cancer, and 18 percent for lung cancer.

The cancer survivor estimates are from CDC’s National Program of Cancer Registries. CDC scientists reviewed the most recent data on cases of invasive cancers reported during 2011. With the exception of urinary bladder cancer, invasive cancer is defined as cancer that has spread to surrounding normal tissue from where it began.Cancer 2

The authors noted that disparities in cancer incidence still persist, with greater rates among men than women and the highest rates among blacks. Additionally, 5-year relative survival after any cancer diagnosis was lower for blacks (60 percent) than for whites (65 percent).

Data by state show incidence rates for all cancer sites ranged from 374 cases per 100,000 persons in New Mexico to 509 cases per 100,000 persons in the District of Columbia.

Source: CDC

The Presidential Healthcare Center’s Executive Physicals include cancer screening and tumor marker tracking.

Colon 33March is Colorectal Cancer Awareness Month: a perfect time to direct attention to the tail end of your digestive tract. Contrary to what many believe, the colon isn’t an inert hollow tube that simply serves as a reservoir for waste until you can find a toilet. Rather, it’s a complex organ that performs the essential function of facilitating balance of fluid and electrolytes in the body in addition to its role in storing and eliminating waste. Equally important – if not moreso – the colon hosts a crucial ecosystem of bacteria that plays a vital role in health. Unfortunately, many of us fail to appreciate just how central the colon is to our health and survival until something goes wrong.

Colorectal cancer is the second leading cause of cancer deaths in the U.S., claiming the lives of more than 50,000 Americans annually. The vast majority of cases occur in people over age 50, and African Americans have the highest rates of colon cancer incidence among all racial groups. Colon 11

As scary as these stats may sound, a large percentage of cases are preventable. Here are 10 lifestyle changes that may be of benefit in colorectal cancer risk reduction:

  1. Reduce your alcohol intake. When it comes to cancer prevention, less (alcohol) is more. Alcohol use is a known risk factor for colorectal cancer – among other cancers – with risk increasing as alcohol intake increases. If you choose to drink, try limiting your intake to no more than one drink daily.
  2. Quit smoking. Smoking is not just a risk factor for lung cancer, but for all digestive system cancers, including colorectal, stomach and esophageal. Make the decision to quit this month, once and for all.
  3. Get moving! Sedentary lifestyles are associated with an increased risk of digestive system cancers. Evidence supporting a significant protective effect of physical activity on colorectal cancer risk is particularly strong. The body of available research suggests that the most active adults have a 40 to 50 percent  reduced risk of developing colon cancer, compared to the least active adults. Importantly, the protective effect of exercise appears to be independent of weight status, meaning that regular physical activity appears to reduce risk of colon cancer even in people who are overweight or obese. So if regular exercise hasn’t yielded the weight loss you’ve hoped for, don’t be discouraged: There are substantial health benefits to physical activity that may not show up on the scale. Colon 22
  4. Get serious about weight loss. Obesity is a strong risk factor for colorectal cancer, and researchers estimate that risk increases about 15 percent with each five additional points of body mass index beyond the upper end of normal range. So, for example, weight loss that results in a reduction of BMI from 35 to 30 would be expected to result in about a 15 percent risk reduction.
  5. Eat less red meat. There is strong evidence supporting high intake of red meat as a risk factor for colorectal cancer. One large study that examined the diets of adults aged 50 to 71 showed that people with the highest intakes of red meat – an average of 5 ounces per day – had a 24 percent greater risk of developing colorectal cancer compared to those with the lowest intake – an average of about half an ounce per day. It has been proposed that multiple mechanisms may be at play, including the type of iron found in red meat (heme iron) and increased exposure to carcinogens called HCAs that are produced when red meat in particular is charred or cooked at a high temperature. If you can’t imagine life without red meat, try thinking of red meat as a garnish to veggie-heavy meals such as stir fries or salads, rather than a center-of-the-plate affair. And consider lower-temperature cooking methods such as braising, boiling or even sautéing instead of broiling or grilling.Colon 66
  6. Avoid foods preserved with sodium nitrite. As you go about reducing your meat intake, start with “pink” processed meats like bacon, salami and hot dogs. These foods – as well as other processed lunchmeats – are commonly preserved with sodium nitrite. When sodium nitrite encounters stomach acid during digestion, it may convert to a compound called a nitrosamine, which is a known carcinogen. Indeed, both high intake of nitrites and processed meats have been associated with increased risk of colorectal cancer compared to lower intakes. If you choose to consume processed meats, look for nitrite-free products, such as those marketed by the Applegate Farms brand.

 

Read more here: U.S News & World Report

Cancer 3Scientists from the Johns Hopkins Kimmel Cancer Center have created a statistical model that measures the proportion of cancer incidence, across many tissue types, caused mainly by random mutations that occur when stem cells divide. By their measure, two-thirds of adult cancer incidence across tissues can be explained primarily by “bad luck,” when these random mutations occur in genes that can drive cancer growth, while the remaining third are due to environmental factors and inherited genes.

“All cancers are caused by a combination of bad luck, the environment and heredity, and we’ve created a model that may help quantify how much of these three factors contribute to cancer development,” says Bert Vogelstein, M.D., the Clayton Professor of Oncology at the Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, co-director of the Ludwig Center at Johns Hopkins and an investigator at the Howard Hughes Medical Institute.Cacer 2

“Cancer-free longevity in people exposed to cancer-causing agents, such as tobacco, is often attributed to their ‘good genes,’ but the truth is that most of them simply had good luck,” adds Vogelstein, who cautions that poor lifestyles can add to the bad luck factor in the development of cancer.

The implications of their model range from altering public perception about cancer risk factors to the funding of cancer research, they say. “If two-thirds of cancer incidence across tissues is explained by random DNA mutations that occur when stem cells divide, then changing our lifestyle and habits will be a huge help in preventing certain cancers, but this may not be as effective for a variety of others,” says biomathematician Cristian Tomasetti, Ph.D., an assistant professor of oncology at the Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine and Bloomberg School of Public Health. “We should focus more Cancer 1resources on finding ways to detect such cancers at early, curable stages,” he adds.

In a report on the statistical findings, published Jan. 2 in Science, Tomasetti and Vogelstein say they came to their conclusions by searching the scientific literature for information on the cumulative total number of divisions of stem cells among 31 tissue types during an average individual’s lifetime. Stem cells “self-renew,” thus repopulating cells that die off in a specific organ.

Source: News Medical

*The Presidential Healthcare Center’s Executive Physicals include cancer screening and tumor marker tracking

M Diet 2The Mediterranean diet consistently has been linked with an array of health benefits, including decreased risk of chronic disease and cancer. Until now, however, no studies had associated the diet with longer telomeres, one of the biomarkers of aging.

In a study published Tuesday online in The BMJ, researchers at Harvard-affiliated Brigham and Women’s Hospital (BWH) found that greater adherence to the Mediterranean diet correlated with longer telomeres.

Telomeres are repetitive DNA sequences at the ends of chromosomes that get shorter every time a cell divides. Shorter telomeres have been associated with decreased life expectancy and increased risk of aging-related disease, while longer telomeres have been linked to longevity. Telomere shortening is accelerated by stress and inflammation, and scientists have speculated that adherence to the Mediterranean diet may help protect against that effect.M diet 3

“To our knowledge this is the largest population-based study specifically addressing the association between Mediterranean diet adherence and telomere length in healthy, middle-aged women,” explained Immaculata De Vivo, an associate professor in the Channing Division of Network Medicine at BWH and the Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, the senior author of this study. “Our results further support the benefits of adherence to this diet to promote health and longevity.”

The researchers analyzed 4,676 disease-free women from the Nurses’ Health Study who had completed the food-frequency questionnaire and whose telomere lengths had been measured. They found that a greater adherence to the Mediterranean diet was associated with longer telomeres, and that even small changes in diet made a difference.

“Our findings showed that healthy eating, overall, was associated with longer telomeres. However, the strongest association M Dietwas observed among women who adhered to the Mediterranean diet,” explained Marta Crous Bou, a postdoctoral fellow in the Channing Division of Network Medicine and the first author of the study.

De Vivo notes that future research should be aimed at determining which components of the Mediterranean diet drive this association. This would allow researchers to gain insight into the biological mechanism, as well as provide a basis for increased public education for informed lifestyle choices.

Source: Harvard Gazette

“The Presidential Healthcare Center Provides Nutritional Assessments.”  

Colon CancerIncidences of colorectal cancer have been decreasing by about 1 percent a year since the mid 1980s, but incidences among people under 50 — the recommended screening age — has been increasing sharply, and these younger patients are more likely to present with advanced disease.

The study, published in JAMA Surgery, used a national database of 400,000 patients with colon or rectal cancer. Incidences decreased by about 1 percent a year over all but rose among people 20 to 34, with the largest increase — 1.8 percent a year — in disease that had already progressed to other organs.

Incidence rates today, per 100,000 people, are 3 for ages 20 to 34; 17 for ages 35 to 49; and 300 for people over 50. But by 2030, the researchers estimate, one in 10 colon cancers and one in four rectal cancers will be in people under 50, and rates among those over 50 will be 175 per 100,000.

The study draws no conclusions about whether screening should begin at a younger age. “There are always risks and colon cancer 4unintended consequences of screening tests,” said the senior author, Dr. George J. Chang, an associate professor of surgery and health services research at the University of Texas.

For now, he said, “We have to pay attention to symptoms with which our patients present, and work them up by including colorectal cancer as a part of the differential diagnosis.”

Source: New York Times

The Presidential Healthcare Center’s Executive Physicals include cancer screening and tumor marker tracking.

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